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32 داستان کوتاه انگلیسی

8 آموزش گرامر زبان انگلیسی

ماضی بعید

ماضی بعید - past perfect

1 - مقدمه :

ابتدا مکالمه زیر را مطالعه نمایید:

At work, Mark is telling a colleague about the dreadful day he had yesterday.

I felt really tired when I took the train to work yesterday because Sarah and I had been to a party the evening before. I hadn't been on the train long when I had a bit of a shock. I suddenly realized that I'd left my wallet at home.Then I began to wonder. had I left it in the office the day before? I just couldn't remember. I wanted to go back to bed. I felt awful.

در مکالمه بالا مشاهده می کنید که برای صحبت در مورد زمان گذشته از past verb استفاده شده است، مانند :

I took the train ....

I felt tired .....

حال اگر بخواهیم در مورد اتفاقات و رخدادهایی که قبل از زمان گذشته رخ داده است، صحبت کنیم، از Past perfect استفاده می نماییم، مانند:

Sarah and I had been to a party the evening before

I'd left my wallet at home

چندین مثال دیگر :

It was twenty to six. most of the shops had just closed.

I went to the box office at lunch-time, but they had already sold all the tickets 

By 1960 most of Britain's old colonies had become independent 

ما می توانیم برای بیان حالت و وضعیت نیز ماضی بعید و یا past perfect استفاده نماییم، مانند:

I felt better by the summer, but the doctor warned me not to do too much. I'd been very ill 

The news came as no surprise to me. I'd known for some time that the factory was likely to close.

2 - شکل و ساختار:

had + a past participlet

He had enjoyed the party. OR He'd enjoyed the party.

They hadn't gone to bed until late.

where had he put his wallet?

3 - تفاوت بین ماضی بعید(past perfect) و ماضی نقلی(persent perfect):

Persent Perfect (before now):

My wallet isn't here. I've left it behind.

The match is over. United have won.

taht man looks familiar. I've seen him somewhere before.

Past Perfect (before than):

My wallet wasn't there. I'd left it behind.

The match was over. United had won

The man looked familiar. I'd seen him somewhere before.